Factors influencing academic achievement[ edit ] Individual differences influencing academic performance[ edit ] Individual differences in academic performance have been linked to differences in intelligence and personality. In a set of investigations, Laurence Steinberg proposes that to understand family influences, it is important to disentangle three different aspects of parenting.
A number of theoretical perspectives have been proposed to explain these relationships, including the resource dilution hypothesis and the confluence model. Research that has examined relationships between changing family structures and students' school-related outcomes, has tended to show that in relation to two-parent families, children in single-parent families have lower academic performance, are more susceptible to peer pressure to engage in deviant behavior, have higher dropout rates from high school, and have greater social and psychological problems.
In addition, research findings are inconclusive about the extent to which relationships between family interactions and academic performance are independent of a child's family background and family structure.
In contrast, family social capital is defined by the relationships that develop between family members.
Only after such inclusive studies are completed—including a number of international contexts—will there be an advance in understanding of the relationships between families and academic achievement.
In the Netherlands, Nan Dirk De Graaf and his colleagues examined associations between parental cultural capital and academic performance.