To this end, Gould even points to a case of repeatability : the repeated evolution of feeding appendages in the crustaceans due to certain developmental precursors also discussed in Powell and Mariscal It seems that idiosyncrasies point towards the ECT.
Fourthly, we assume mutual independence between all the observations. What are considered hidden variables at one stage of science e. That is—on the basis of adaptive value alone, the solutions may be more-or-less indistinguishable from one another.
Yet none of this has the slightest bearing on the issue of evolutionary indeterminism, which maintains that there are sources of indeterminism in evolution over and above any indeterminism resulting from quantum mechanical factors.
To take the classic example, one billiard ball hitting another billiard ball would be a deterministic process if the collision of the first ball with the second was sufficient in those conditions to cause the second ball to move. Environment-trait uniformity and environmental regularity are two necessary premises amongst others that are required of the robust view of life in order to assert the repeatability of form.
Lepore and Z.