Second language writing research
Although the process approach to instruction, characterized by practice, collaboration, and the opportunity for revision, may be suitable for most English L1 writers, it is apparent that many L2 writers do not have the necessary linguistic ability to reap the benefits of the approach.
Classroom settings, course goals, and grading procedures and standards are also important Leki, Learners who are instrumentally motivated are interested in learning the language for a particular purpose, such as writing a dissertation or getting a job.
Behaviorist accounts claim that transfer is the cause of errors, whereas from a cognitive perspective, transfer is seen as a resource that the learner actively draws upon in interlanguage development Selinker, Lantolf, J. Social factors also influence the quality of contact that learners will experience. Models can also be used for text analysis, which can help L2 writers see how particular grammatical features are used in authentic discourse contexts. In sum, social-cognitive theories of writing show us how social contexts for writing operate together with the cognitive efforts of the writer, just as they do when a person is acquiring a new language. White, E. Some studies have indicated that input, along with L1 transfer and communicative need may work together to shape interlanguage Ellis, ; Selinker, Indeed, academic writing requires conscious effort and practice in composing, developing, and analyzing ideas. However, the social dimension is important too.
Cumming, A. Aspects of language teaching.
Second language writing research
They start with what they already know and can do, but their learning is extended into what Vygotsky termed the "zone of proximal development" through strategic instruction, collaborative construction of opportunities and active participation Lantolf, ; Schinke-Llano, References Anderson, J. If learners perceive writing tasks to be useless, they may approach them in a careless manner. Writing practice can also present diagnostic feedback that helps learners improve their linguistic accuracy at every level of proficiency. Silva, T. Overly detailed responses may overwhelm L2 writers and discourage substantive revision, whereas minimal feedback may result in only surface modifications to the text. Kogen, M. Classroom instruction and language minority students: On teaching to"Smarter" readers and writers. Proficient students who are also fairly skilled writers can benefit from this approach. Unfortunately, this pattern can slow down L2 development in all skill areas. Limited knowledge of vocabulary, language structure, and content can inhibit a L2 writer's performance.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ESL writers' reactions to teacher commentary: A case study. Sengupta, S. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. I argue that the process approach to instruction, with its emphasis on the writing process, meaning making, invention and multiple drafts Raimes,is only appropriate for second language learners if they are both able to get sufficient feedback with regard to their errors in writing, and are proficient enough in the language to implement revision strategies.
Second language articles
Some studies have indicated that input, along with L1 transfer and communicative need may work together to shape interlanguage Ellis, ; Selinker, Foreign Language Annals, 24, Generally speaking, if L2 learners are motivated to integrate into the L2, they will develop a higher level of proficiency and positive attitudes, which can have a positive effect on their writing. Ideally, instruction and response serve to motivate revisions, encourage learning, induce problem-solving and critical thinking, in addition to further writing practice Cumming, ; White, ; Zamel, Spack, R. Fossilized errors can be problematic in writing because the errors become ingrained, like bad habits, in a learner's repertoire, and they reappear despite remediation and correction. Lantolf, J. Shen, F. Odlin Ed. In fact, Bereiter and Scardamalia criticize formal schooling that encourages the more passive kind of cognition by "continually telling students what to do," rather than encouraging them "to follow their spontaneous interests and impulses.
Although a certain amount of consciousness-raising on the part of the readers may be warranted, students want to write close to error-free texts and they enter language courses with the expectations of becoming more proficient writers in the L2.
The neurobiology of affect in language.
Second language research
The influence of teacher commentary on student revision. Further, certain social and cognitive factors related to second language acquisition show that strategies involved in the language learning process also affect L2 writing. In his research on how L2 writers revise their work, Silva observes that learners revise at a superficial level. Consequently, it is likely that they will be inattentive to errors, monitoring, and rhetorical concerns Carson, In addition, the models do not account for growing language proficiency, which is a vital element of L2 writing development. Odlin, T. Proficient students who are also fairly skilled writers can benefit from this approach. The transformation stage involves converting information into meaningful sentences. Social factors also influence the quality of contact that learners will experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rhetoric and writing are direct outcomes of sociocultural and political contexts; in other words, they are schematic representations of the writer's unique experiences within a particular social milieu. Silva, T. This outcome may affect the way second language students perform when they are under stress.
We also need to understand how students compose in both their native languages and in English to understand more about their learning strategies especially in monitoring errorsthe role of translation, and transfer of skills. According to the theory, if second language learning takes place in isolation from a community of target language speakers, then it benefits more from integrative motivation, whereas if it takes place among a community of speakers, then instrumental orientation becomes the more effective motivational factor.
Social factors also influence the quality of contact that learners will experience.
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